Nieuwe formulering Euthyrox

Er komen nieuwe tabletten van het middel Euthyrox. Deze zijn vanaf juni in Nederland op de markt. Apotheken maken echter eerst hun oude voorraad op, dus mogelijk krijgt men na 1 juni toch nog een keer de oude formulering mee. Per september zullen alle patienten de nieuwe formulering gebruiken.

Voor meer informatie en achtergronden, zie het bericht op de website van SON:



Het meten van endocrine-disruptors

People are constantly exposed to a wide variety of chemicals. Some of these compounds, such as parabens, bisphenols and phthalates, are known to have endocrine disrupting potencies. Over the years, these endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been a rising cause for concern. In this study, we describe setup and validation of two methods to measure EDCs in human urine, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The phenol method determines methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben and bisphenol A, F and S. The phthalate method determines in total 13 metabolites of dimethyl, diethyl, diisobutyl, di-n-butyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), butylbenzyl, diiso-nonyl and diisodecyl phthalate. Runtime was 7 and 8 min per sample for phenols and phthalates, respectively. The methods were validated by the National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) for 13 compounds. In addition, EDCs were measured in forty 24-h urine samples, of which 12 EDCs were compared with the same samples measured in an established facility (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark). The intra-assay coefficient of variability (CV) was highest at 10% and inter-assay CV was highest at 12%. Recoveries ranged from 86 to 115%. The limit of detection ranged from 0.06 to 0.43 ng/mL. Of 21 compounds, 10 were detected above limit of detection in ≥93% of the samples. Eight compounds were in accordance to NIST reference concentrations. Differences in intercept were found for two compounds whereas slope differed for six compounds between our method and that used in the Danish facility. In conclusion, we set up and validated two high-throughput methods with very short runtime capable of measuring 5 parabens, 3 bisphenols and 13 different metabolites of 8 phthalates. Sensitivity of the phenol method was increased by using ammonium fluoride in the mobile phase.

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Feochromocytoom en paraganglioom

INTRODUCTION: Recent years have seen major changes in clinical practice which may have affected the incidence rates of pheochromocytoma(PCC)/sympathetic paraganglioma(sPGL). There is, however, a lack of up-to-date information describing trends in these incidence rates.

METHODS: We searched the Dutch pathology registry to identify all histopathologically confirmed cases of PCC/sPGL diagnosed between 1995 and 2015. We calculated incidence rates according to age category as well as age-standardized incidence rates (ASR). We also searched Medline and Embase to find data on nationwide incidence rates of PCC/sPGL.

RESULTS: The nationwide pathology study revealed a total of 1493 patients with either PCC or sPGL. The ASR for PCC increased from 0.29 (95% CI: 0.24-0.33) to 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39-0.53) per 100,000 person-years in the periods 1995-1999 and 2011-2015, respectively. For sPGL the ASR in these same periods were 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06-0.10) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.09-0.13) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Concomitantly, PCC size decreased (β -0.17; P < .001) and age at diagnosis increased (β 0.13; P = .001). Our systematic search yielded 3 papers reporting on a total of 530 PCC/sPGL cases, showing a combined annual incidence rate varying from 0.04 to 0.21 per 100,000 person-years.

CONCLUSION: Incidence rates of PCC/sPGL have increased significantly over the past two decades. This trend coincides with a higher age and a smaller tumor size at diagnosis. Most likely these observations are at least in part the result of changes in clinical practice during the study period, with a more intensified use of both imaging studies and biochemical tests for detecting PCC/sPGL.

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Cobalamine (vitamine B12) deficiëntie

Although cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency was described over a century ago, it is still difficult to establish the correct diagnosis and prescribe the right treatment. Symptoms related to vitamin B12 deficiency may be diverse and vary from neurologic to psychiatric. A number of individuals with vitamin B12 deficiency may present with the classic megaloblastic anemia.

In clinical practice, many cases of vitamin B12 deficiency are overlooked or sometimes even misdiagnosed. In this review, we describe the heterogeneous disease spectrum of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency in whom the diagnosis was either based on low serum B12 levels, elevated biomarkers like methylmalonic acid and/or homocysteine, or the improvement of clinical symptoms after the institution of parenteral vitamin B12 therapy. We discuss the possible clinical signs and symptoms of patients with B12 deficiency and the various pitfalls of diagnosis and treatment.

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De Ziekte van Von Hippel-Lindau

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant rare tumor syndrome characterized by high penetrance. VHL mutation carriers develop numerous manifestations in multiple organs during life. The natural course of development of new and growth of existing VHL-related manifestations is still unclear. In this study we aimed to gain insight into the development of subsequent manifestations in VHL disease. We retrospectively scored each new VHL-related manifestation as detected by standard follow-up (retina, central nervous system, kidneys and pancreas, excluding adrenal and endolymfatic sac manifestations) in 75 VHL mutation carriers. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot the cumulative proportions of all consecutive manifestations in each organ against age. The cumulative average number of manifestations in all organs during life was calculated by summating these cumulative proportions. Poisson model parameters were used to calculate average time to the detection of consecutive VHL manifestations in each organ. Consecutive VHL-related kidney and retina manifestations during life occur linearly according to Poisson distribution model. The total number of VHL manifestations rises linearly, with an average of seven VHL-related lesions at age 60 years. The incidence of consecutive VHL-related manifestations is constant during life in VHL mutation carriers. Our data is consistent with the notion that somatic inactivation of the remaining allele (Knudson’s “two-hit” hypothesis) is the determining factor in developing new VHL-related manifestations.

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